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Материалы отфильтрованы по дате: Вторник, 01 октября 2019
Опубликовано в ВШК




























Introduction ……………………………………...3

  1. Cockney slang…………………………………….4
  2. The Etymology of Cockney………………………5
  3. Who speaks Cockney……………………………..6
  4. Features of Cockney……………………………...7
  5. Cockney Rhyming Slang…………………………8
  6. Grammatical features…………………………….9
  7. Mockney………………………………………….10
  8. Conclusion………………………………………..11
  9. List of references………………………………....12





















The Theme: Investigation is London slang Cockney.


The Task: To Know how we can use this slang in real life. Can it be useful in learning foreign (English) language?


The aim: To prove the hypothesis of this investigation


The hypothesis:  We can’t understand Londoners without Cockney slang















The theme of my investigation is London slang Cockney. I think we can’t understand Londoners without learning modern slangs and dialects. London is not only the capital of Great Britain, but also the country’s "linguistic center of gravity." The most interesting accent in London is Cockney. Because it’s spread all over English-speaking world. There are a lot of funny TV-shows where speakers use Cockney. This slang also is used in everyday dialogues in order to emphasize it emotionally. That is why I decided to investigate this phenomena.    


The Etymology of Cockney slang

The etymology of Cockney has long been discussed. "Cockney" literally means a misshapen egg such as sometimes laid by young hens. In the 17th century it was talked about weak townsman, opposed to the tougher countryman. Than the term meant a Londoner. Today Londoners use it with respect - “Cockney Pride”.

Cockney is characterized by its own special vocabulary and usage, and traditionally by its own  "rhyming slang". It is part of the true Cockney culture and sometimes used for an effect.

The cockney accent has become synonymous with working-class London. Some examples of the accent include replacing the “th” sound in words such as “think” with an F sound. Likewise the H sound in words such as “hospital” or “holiday” will be dropped, so that the words are instead pronounced as “ospital” or “oliday”. The cockney greeting “Awite mate!” means “How are you, friend?”


Who speaks Cockney?

To be a true Cockney, a person has to be born within hearing distance of the bells of St. Mary le Bow, in the City of London. These accents have often become the foundation for British "soap operas" and other television programmes. The BBC is showing one of the most popular soaps set in this region, "East Enders" and the characters’ accents and lives within this television program provide wonderful opportunities for observers of language and culture.






Features of Cockney English:

MOUTH vowel

Cockney users change /th/ into /f/


mouth = mauf

thin = fin

brother = bruvver

three = free

bath = barf

Glottal stop

The glottal stop as also particularly characteristic of Cockney.


Waterloo = Wa’erloo

City = Ci’y

A drink of water = A drin' a wa'er

A little bit of bread with a bit of butter on it = A li'le bi' of breab wiv a bi' of bu'er on i'.

An "Estuary English" speaker uses fewer glottal stops for /t/ or /d/ than a "London" speaker. However, there are some words where the omission of ‘t’ has become very accepted.


Gatwick = Ga’wick

Scotland = Sco'land

statement = Sta'emen

network = Ne’work

Dropped ‘h’ at beginning of words

In the working-class ("common") accents throughout England, ‘h’ dropping at the beginning of certain words is heard often, but it’s certainly heard more in Cockney.


house = ‘ouse

hammer = ‘ammer

Vowel lowering


dinner - dinna

marrow - marra

Ll = u

milk - miuk

mail – maiu


Cockney Rhyming Slang


The concept of rhyming slang is that everything rhymes with what it actually means. The way it works is that you take a pair of associated words where the second word rhymes with the word you intend to say, then use the first word of the associated pair. Some rhymes have been in use for years and are very well recognized.


"apples and pears" – stairs

"plates of meat" – feet




Grammatical features:

Use of me instead of my, for example, "At's me book you got 'ere". It cannot be used when "my" is emphasised; e.g., "At's my book you got 'ere" (and not "their").

Use of ain't

Use of double negatives


"I didn't see nuffink"

By the 1980s and 1990s, most of the features mentioned above had partly spread into more general southeastern speech, giving the accent called Estuary English; an Estuary speaker will use some but not all of the cockney sounds.

Studies have indicated that the heavy use of South East England accents on television and radio may be the cause of the spread of cockney English since the 1960s. Cockney is more and more influential and some claim that in the future many features of the accent may become standard.























Mockney is an affected accent and form of speech in imitation of cockney or working-class London speech, or a person with such an accent. A stereotypical mockney speaker comes from an upper-middle-class background.

A person speaking with a mockney accent might adopt cockney pronunciation but retain standard grammatical forms, whereas the genuine cockney speaker uses non-standard forms.

It is an affectation sometimes adopted for aesthetic or theatrical purposes, and at other times just to sound "cool", to generate street credibility, or to give the false impression that the speaker rose from humble beginnings and became prominent through some innate talent rather than the education, contacts and other advantages that a privileged background tends to bring. Britpop band was said to have a "mockney, down-the-dogs blokey charm". Mick Jagger is often accused of being the first celebrity in modern times to overplay his regional accent in order to boost his street credibility.






















Eastuary English. Cockney speakers are in new territories

Estuary English is a result of certain long-lasting processes leading to language changes in the region where it appears, in which the influences from London play a significant role. It is not a variety that has spontaneously emerged recently. Therefore, what can be read about ‘the sudden emergence of a new type of English’ results from irresponsible disregard for the facts. Cockney speakers’ accommodation in the new territories. One of the presumable causes of the rise of Estuary English is forced migration around the London area after World War II (overspill building programmes for Londoners). Cockney speakers would modify their speech to accommodate to the rest of the population traditionally settled in the places where they were transplanted, creating in the course of years an intermediate variety or intermediate varieties reflecting pronunciation compromises between the newly migrated and the rest of the new towns dwellers.

The opposite (the locals changing their speech towards Londonish speech) would also be the case. This hypothesis has been challenged by Susan Fox in her Basildon Project. Working class town developed in the 1950’s in response to the need of East End Londoners forced to leave the city and find new houses in the post-war period. The location of the town, approximately 25 miles east of London, would imply that the dialect spoken there is Estuary English as Rosewarne (1984) believed that the variety was based by the banks of the Thames, but also used in the south-east of England. “Estuary English may … be the result of a confluence of two social trends: an up-market movement of originally Cockney speakers, and a down-market trend towards 'ordinary'(as opposed to 'posh') speech by the middle class.”

This claim is supported by Kerswill (1994): “people who speak this are often highly mobile, socially and geographically; they can converge on it from 'above'(RP) or 'below'(local dialect)”. He adds: “Because it obscures sociolinguistic origins, ‘Estuary English’ is attractive to many. The motivation, often unconscious, of those who are rising and falling socio-economically is to fit into their new environments by compromising but not losing their original linguistic identity.”

Coggle (1998 – 1999) explains why the young prefer using Estuary English to speaking the accents of their parents in a similar way: “Actually, young people have always tended to fall in line with their peers (rather than with their parents) and it is now considered unacceptable by younger people (and sometimes even by middleaged people) to sound too "posh" and privileged, whereas in the past people had fewer qualms about their wealth and privilege.”






Practical part


The research was made among students of high school with the Intermediate level. In my school we’ve got the data of quality research: The most of students don’t know that Englishmen often use slang expressions in the communication culture. At the same time, the majority (69%) understand that they come across with unknown phrases, abbreviations, pronunciation when watching TV shows and blogs in English. Many also believe that you can understand an Englishman without slang. The majority of students (77%) watch various programs, series and films in English. At the same time, 85% of respondents would like to study slang in school program. Thus, we can conclude from this study: the majority of students would like to learn English slangs as part of the school program, so they feel the need to understand foreign content.



To my mind it’s very interesting adventure to investigate slangs. I have seen a lot of video and programs about this phenomena. But the most funny stories are about how foreigners try to use this accent and speech constructions. That’s why I suppose our hypothesis that we can’t understand English language without Cockney is not true. Let’s learn all the linguistic sides of English, but speak like British royal family.      






















Glossary of rhyming slang:


  • «Bees and honey» (пчёлы и мёд)— «money» (деньги);
  • «Bottle and stopper» (бутылка и пробка)— «copper» (полицейский);
  • «Cut and carried» (вырезан и перенесён)— «married» (женат);
  • «Day’s a-dawning» (дневной рассвет)— «morning» (утро);
  • «Early hours» (ранние часы)— «flowers» (цветы);
  • «Fisherman’s daughter» (дочь рыбака)— «water» (вода);
  • «Light and dark» (светлый и тёмный)— «park» (парк);
  • «Loop the loop» (делать мёртвую петлю)— «soup» (суп);
  • «Lump of ice» (глыба льда)— «advice» (совет);
  • «On the floor» (на полу)— «poor» (бедняк);
  • «Satin and silk» (атла́си шёлк) — «milk» (молоко);
  • «True till death» (верный до смерти)— «breath» (дыхание);
  • «Weep and wail» (плакать и рыдать)— «a tale» (рассказ);
  • «Yet to be» (ещё предстоит)— «free» (свободный).



























List of references:


  1. Babbel Magazine “The School Of British Accents — Learn The Cockney Accent”


  1. Wikipedia - https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mockney


  1. Academic Dictionaries and Encyclopedias


  1. https://www.englishbaby.com - lessons/5191/member_submitted/cockney_english


  1. Parsons, Gudrun. 1998 From "RP" to "Estuary English": the concept 'received'and the debate about British pronunciation standards. [Hamburg MA dissertation.] DOA: 25 February 2003


  1. Crystal, David 1995 The Cambridge Encyclopedia of The English Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


  1. Coggle, Paul 1993 Do you speak Estuary? The new Standard English: how to spot it and speak it. London: Bloomsbury Publishing Ltd.






Опубликовано в Проекты

Municipal educational institution

"Lyceum N 22"








on the topic

“The Beatles and their impact on youth of the XX century”







Student: form 5 “V”

 Polekhina Veronika

Supervisor: Matkevich M.S.,

a teacher of English










Voskresensk, 2018








Part I. Who were they




1. The story of the band




2. The secret of success




3. The Beatles influence



Part II. Practical part





























We all know that music is the greatest thing which joins people over the world. It’s common human possession and it hasn’t got nationality. Everyone has got his own musical preferences. Today I want to tell you about my favorite music band. It is The Beatles.

Who were they? Despite they haven’t been as a creative group for more than 40 years, and two of them died, people all over the world dance, laugh and sing their music, as their art lives alongside with us. So who are they, the four young Englishmen called ”the fabulous four”? The answers may be numerous.

So, the aim of my work is to find out how the English music band the Beatles influenced on the youth of the XX century.

The main purposes are the following:

  1. to find out the interesting literature and the information in Internet about the Beatles;
  2. to understand how the band influenced on the mind of the youth in XX century;
  3. to get experience of scientific research.

Well, some can say they are young hooligans singing rock’n’roll tunes like “Can’t buy me love”. The others can put them in the same rank with the greatest composers, such as Mozart, Beethoven and Bach, taking into account their album “Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band”. But the others can call them optimists and philosophers. I would like to try to find my own answer to this question.

They are: energetic, always fighting, romantic and fantastically talented, philosophical and bit religious, always smiling and friendly.

The practical value of the work is taking focus on four of The Beatles’ most popular songs and take a look at some grammar and language points that can be learned simply by studying the lyrics and singing along.


Part I. Who were they?

The story of the band.

The history of the Beatles includes the early years, the arrival of Beatlemania in America and the band breakup.

John Lennon, James Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Richard Starkey (also known as Ringo Starr) were born in the 1940s in Liverpool, England. During the post war period, Liverpool was a depressed town. Later, these four men took the world by storm in a phenomenon our culture refers to as Beatlemania.

John Lennon met Paul McCartney when they were both performing in Skiffle Groups, which were homespun bands that played a combination of folk, rock and jazz. John was in a group called The Quarrymen, which later became John and the Quarrymen. Paul introduced John to George Harrison, who was two years younger but showed extraordinary talent. John, Paul and George, with the addition of John's Friend from art college, Stu Sutcliffe and a guitarist named Pete Best, set out to work in German clubs, where musicians were able to make a paltry living playing strip clubs and low end establishments. Ringo was performing in many of the same establishments with the group Rory Storm and the Hurricanes. [4]

During their time in Germany, Stu Sutcliffe decided return to to his first love, art, and a new love, a woman he had met in Germany named Astrid. Stu later died of a brain hemorrhage, which some suspect was due to his previous involvement in a club fight. The remaining members, now called "The Silver Beatles to" returned Liverpool, where John dealt with feelings of failure and a pregnant girlfriend, whom he reluctantly married.

Their luck changed when a young record storeowner, named Epstein Brian, noticed the Beatles and thought they had something unique. After convincing the Beatles to clean up their tough image, they traded jackets leather for matching suits as Brian peddled their records from label to label with no success. Epstein never gave up on the Beatles and his business savvy, combined with Beatles raw the talent finally began to pay off.

Many of the groups from England, dubbed The Mersey Sound, were featured in Mersey Beat Magazine and played on the radio. The Beatles kept plugging away at fame. Meanwhile, a decision was made by the group to drop Pete Best as drummer. Although Pete had the classic looks good that drew female fans, the group wanted Ringo to be their drummer. By the time recorded the Beatles Love Me Do in 1962, Ringo was the official drummer, however, studio musicians were brought in for the drumming on Love Me Do. Fans of performances their live were disappointed about the change of drummers and for a long time a chant of "Pete Forever, Ringo Never" accompanied their act.

Despite controversy and frequent fighting between themselves, the Beatles began to become immensely popular in Europe. Their fame in Europe was small in proportion to that which they would experience in America. A great amount of hype surrounded the Beatles landing at Kennedy Airport in America in February 1964. DJ Murray the K announced the time as Beatle Time and Beatle news flashes built up the excitement leading to their famous appearance on Ed Sullivan. From then on, teenagers were caught up in a fan frenzy that sometimes included hysteria, with female fans fainting during performances. These live performances were short lived and the last American Concert was at Candlestick Park in 1966. The fans screamed so loud, few could really hear much of the concert, but had most teens a Beatle Album collection. The Beatles made two early films, Hard Day's Night and Help, which remain popular today. As much as teenagers loved them, many parents and religious leaders feared their influence. In particular controversy was the over John Lennon's mistaken remark that the Beatles were more popular than Jesus. This resulted in some record burning and protests and the Beatles lost some of their sweet, manufactured media image, and began to deal with more serious subjects.

This was reflected in their 1966 album "Revolver," where their music and lyrics took on a more somber, mystical tone. George Harrison began experimenting with the Sitar, and Eastern Philosophy and all of the Beatles began experimenting with drugs. Their next film was not a lighthearted romp like the previous two; instead "Yellow Submarine" was a psychedelic cartoon full of political references. In 1967, the "Summer of Love" was kicked off by the release of "Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band." The album featured many references to death, drugs, and rebellion. The album provided the perfect soundtrack for the mood of a world, which was immersed in controversy over the Vietnam War, drugs and rebellion. These themes were also present in Magical Mystery Tour, although the latter album (and televisions special aired in the UK) had a more hopeful tone and the song "All You Need is Love" was the first world satellite broadcast to reach the entire world.

1968 saw the release a two set volume entitled the "White Album", with a completely white cover, with photos of the Beatles and a pictorial spread inside. Around the same time, a hoax began saying Paul McCartney had secretly died in a car accident and that clues imbedded were in the White Album as well as previous albums. At this time, John Lennon (now divorced) and Yoko Ono became close and she began to have a great influence on the Beatles, not to pleasure of everyone. Much of the fighting, particularly between the song-writing duo of Lennon and McCartney, was said to have stemmed from Yoko's participation in the group's decisions.

Although they made a few more albums, most notably "Abbey Road", Beatlemania was coming clearly to an end. In 1970 Paul officially announced he was leaving the Beatles, and despite legal arguments, the Beatles went to pursue musical careers and separate lives. John married Yoko, Paul married Linda photographer McCartney, George Harrison lost his wife to fellow guitarist, Eric Clapton and later remarried, and Ringo was also later divorced, started acting an career, and married former James Bond girl Barbara Bach. The relationships remained strained and although fans hoped they would reconcile, the came reunion too late after John Lennon was shot in 1980. The popular Anthology CD sets have John's voice electronically blended with the others and have been immensely popular, yet a sad reminder of an era past forever known as Beatlemania.

The story of success.

Every story gets mythologized, especially when it comes to the history of popular music groups and performers. The history of the most popular band of all times The Beatles also became a subject of this mandatory mythologizing.

Many sites on the Internet say that Beatlemania started on September 17th, 1963. They count from the first recording of songs of the famous Fab Four was created. This happened in the U.S. at the recording Swan studio. This record, according to researchers, became the launching of the careers of the musicians, and opened a New  Age of Beatles in the pop culture.                                        

 But to tell the truth, that record was not the first in the history of the band.

Their really first recording was made at the Hamburg studio Polydor in 1961. The album was called My Bonnie. At the time they called themselves The Beat Brothers. [6]

The band released their first single Love Me Do in September 1962 at the EMI studio. By September 1963, The Beatles released four singles, two mini-albums and one full album in Britain at the label Parlophone, owned by the giant of the recording industry EMI.

The very first edition of the Beatles songs in the United States was. released in 1963. The songs Please Please Me and From Me To You, as well as the album Introducing The Beatles were not successful and did not get even into the regional charts.

The first rush of Beatlemania appeared in  America in December of 1963, when they released I Want To Hold Your Hand. The official start of Beatlemania is the concert in London Palladium on October 13, 1963. The event was broadcast in the program Sunday Night.

Thousands of young fans and admirers have filled the streets to the building of the concert hall, waiting for the musicians. After the concert the band had to escape into the car surrounded by a police patrol - an event very, very rare in those years. Even Elvis Presley was not "torn to pieces" in his time.

What causes such mythologization of the history of the Beatles? Probably, the attempts to somehow explain the phenomenon of their extraordinary popularity. However, the authors of all the myths are making the same fundamental error - they believe that such a complex and multifaceted thing as popularity may be the result of only one event. It is not true.

It should be noted that the puzzle is yet to be solved.

Those who have been studying the phenomenon of The Beatles usually say that their success is explained by the simplicity and openness of songs performed by the Fab Four. But in Britain in the late 1950s - early 1960s there were dozens of bands playing similar music, and The Beatles are the only band known around the world. Why were they the only ones to become super popular?

Some believe that the phenomenon of The Beatles created was not by the musicians but their Brian Epstein manager and producer George Martin. However, it is unlikely. Epstein, according to people who personally knew him, was a very mediocre organizer and businessman.

Others believe that the reason for the success of The Beatles was not their music, but topical and original lyrics., The Beatles never tried to appeale the tastes and preferences of the public and be fashionable. They preferred to do what they liked themselves.

The tunes of even the earliest songs were astonishingly unconventional. The Beatles felt there was not enough room for them within the frame of "classic" rock-n-roll, and they kept trying to remake creating their own rhythm, harmony and tone. That caused a strange effect where the song turned out both "common" and at the same time unique. As a result, even in the first albums you will not find two similar compositions.

The same happened with the lyrics. Lennon, McCartney and Harrison seemed to be writing about things everyone knows of, but always put some hidden extra subtext in their poetry. The result was a song that you wanted to listen to time and again, discovering something new every time. Such works of art never get old.

As a result, the Fab Four created their own, unique and original world of The Beatles. In this world there were wonderful things, people lived in "nowhere," yellow submarines were abundant, guitars were crying, and octopus invited you to its garden, Lucy soared into the heavens, and so on. This magical space was open to anyone who wanted to visit.

There were many those willing, because people were tired of war ruins and everyday burdens of life, and wanted to find themselves in the sweet and gentle tale for a moment. This tale was offered by The Beatles to the fans (it was offered, not imposed).

But nothing lasts forever. Over time, the members of the band got bored of the "fairy tale," and The Beatles ceased to exist. But the magical world they created seems to have remained attractive for the fans of modern pop music. When in 2004 Rolling Stone magazine published a list of top 500 songs of all time, it included 23 songs of the legendary Fab Four.

It is unlikely that the musicians would be able to create their own magical world, if they have not tried to remain true to themselves. Then, probably after 1-2 popular albums and dozens of concerts people would have completely lost interest in their work (except, perhaps, a couple of hundred loyal fans). The saddest thing is that most modern pop artists do just that. As a result, the popularity of the Beatles has not been surpassed by anyone.

The influence of the Beatles

During many years there have been many bands that were considered great, and to have impacted the world. However, none of these groups can compare to the Beatles. Influence is defined as the capacity to produce effects on the actions, behavior, and opinions of others. Because of the effect on music, fashion, culture, and the society in general, The Beatles are the most influential British music group of all time.

The Beatles influenced popular music and the lives of all who heard them in deep and fundamental ways”.

They igniited the lattent energy of youtth on both sides of the Atlantic. They helped confer self-identity upon a youthful, music-based culture that flexed its muscle in myriad ways – not just as music connsumers, but also as a force for political expression, social commentary and contemporary lifestyles.

Although the Beatles were a sensation in Britain, they did not stop their success in music there. Even after moving to America, the Beatles dominated the charts by creating 3 more number one singles than the legendary Elvis Presley with tweenty. The Beatles haad such an impact by music in the sense that they set a standard for popular music, and brought an massive amount of popularity to the genre of rock and roll music. The Beatles have inspired counttless bandsmen to imitate their unique style and sound, and continue to inspire the public, and sell millions of allbums, even though the band broke up in 1970, and George Harrison died from cancer in 2001, and Johnn Lennon was knocked off in 1980. They even changed what rock music means to many people. The Beatles evidently are immensely influential to music because of the fact that they are still effecting people 40 after the band broke up, with only two living participants.

Next, the Beatles enormously influenced fashion. Although “no single person can be credited with dressing the Beatles,” they began a fashion trend. In fact, the Beatles influenced fashion to an extent where their outfits and looks were basically being copied by boutiques and other clothing stores. The reason set the Beatles such a trend in fashion is because of their music. They run the charts and are performing all the most popular songs. “They [the Beatles] transformed the look, sound, and style of not only their generation, but also of the ones that followed”[4]. When the Beatles began their band, they actually had what could be categorized as a greaser look. They were decked in leather clothes and had greasy hair. Eventually the band made the evolution from greasy leather wearing musicians to a group that wore nice custom-tailored suits that all matched. The hair was so popular that “the Beatle wig became the hottest novelty since the hula hoop”. Again their look transformed. They moved from the well-tailored suits to matching turtle necks. And again the Beatles gave this look enormous popularity. Whatever the band wore, the public wanted to wear. The Beatles continued to set fashion trends, and still do. Even though the bad developed differences and split up, and most of the members are dead now, the Beatles are still influencing fashion. They sell more records now than they did when they were together, and people constantly attempt to capture the look that the Beatles inspired.

Finally, the Beatles had an influence on society and culture. The British rock band known as the Beatles came to America in 1964. When they got here, they “stood the world of pop culture on its head, setting the musical agenda for the remainder of the decade” (The Beatles 4). The Beatles were impacting society and culture by combining their effects with music, and with fashion. By changing and influencing both of those, they were impacting society as a whole. The Beatles have had this lasting and ongoing effect on the world :

Though popular music has changed considerably in the decades since the Beatles’ demise, their music continues to reach and inspire new generations of listeners. Half a century after their humble origins in Liverpool, the Beatles remain the most enduring phenomenon in the history of popular music.

This effect clear shows that the Beatles have impacted society in a way that can never be forgotten.

Many groups have points of view that influence some of the public for some time. Or songs that are popular for a certain amount of time. But no bad, let alone a British band, has even inspired people’s music, opinions, fashion, and society in the way the Beatles have. The Beatles have influenced prominent feature, and simply influenced life in a way that is immeasurable. The Beatles ended 40 years ago, however; their music, their fashion, and their impact on culture live on and go on  to strive like no other music group has ever done. The Beatles are unsuitable the most impactful British music group of all time, because of the undeniable and lasting effect they have had on society, trand, and music.


Part II. Practical part.

Learn English With The Beatles

Everyone loves The Beatles. The band from Liverpool, England proceed to superstardom in the 1960s on the back of dozens of splashy hit songs. The ‘Fab Four’ (as they were informally known) are still as popular today with fans in all corners of the globe.

Not only is their music good for a party, but it can also help improve your English. Songs by The Beatles are especially useful for learners for a number of reasons. First of all, the lyrics are often sung clearly and slowly, allowing for even beginner level learners of English to understand them. The lyrics are quite simple, with basic structures repeated throughout the songs. In fact, they’re so splashy songs that you really can’t  help singing along and practicing the words!

In this article, I’m going to focus on four of The Beatles’ most popular songs and take a look at some grammar and language points that can be learned simply by studying the lyrics and singing along. So let’s help ourselves with the Beatles.

Hard Day’s Night: Written by John Lennon

Let’s work with the song  called Hard Day’s Night: Written by John Lennon. The song is a great introduction to the present perfect tense, both in the simple and continuous forms, as well as some idiomatic language. 

Grammar points: present perfect simple, present perfect continuous, idiomatic expressions.

Focus on  lyrics:

It’s been a hard day’s night,

And I’ve been working like a dog.

It’s been a hard day’s night,

I should be sleeping like a log.

We can notice some interesting grammar and language moments. Firstly, let’s take a look at the idioms:

  • To work like a dog: to work extremely hard, particularly in a job which requires some sort of physical labour.
  • To sleep like a log: to sleep deeply and silently.


  • He’s been working like a dog recently so he really deserves this holiday.
  • I slept like a log last night so I didn’t hear you get in late.

         The present perfect simple tense (It’s been a hard day’s night) is used to talk about an fact which began in the past and has continued up to the present time. By using this tense, we know that the time period has not yet finished.

In the second line, he continues to use the present perfect, but this time changing it to the present perfect continuous (I’ve been working like a dog). Again, this indicates that the time period began in the past and has continued up to the present. However, it also indicates that it was an action which involved repetition or duration. 


I’ve been given a pay rise because I’ve been working such long hours over the past few months.

Yesterday: Written by Paul McCartney 

This melancholic song is one of The Beatles’ greatest hits, and is also one of the most famouse songs in the history of pop music. Performed by Paul McCartney, Yesterday is the end of a romantic relationship and compares the singer’s privet situation with what had happened before. It’s great for comparing several forms related to the present and the past. 

Grammar points: Present simple, past simple, the verb “will” in the past, “used to” + verb.

Focus lyrics:

Yesterday all my troubles seemed so far away

Now it looks as though they’re here to stay

McCartney compares the past and present with these two lines using the past simple (my troubles seemed) and the present simple (it looks as though they are here to stay) tenses. The time expressions (yesterday/now) also make clear the transition from the past to the present.

Focus lyrics:

Suddenly, I’m not the man I used to be

         McCartney uses the present simple again (I am not) and the used to + verb form (I used to be) to contrast a situation with a past fact or summes up that is no longer actual. 


I used to eat meat, but now I’m vegetarian.

Focus lyrics:

Why she had to go, I don’t know, she wouldn’t say

With this line, McCartney uses the simple past of have to (she had to go) in order to indicate an obligation in the past. We can also see the past form of the auxiliary verb will in the negative (she wouldn’t say), which is used to tell us that she didn’t want  to give the answer.


  • I had to get up early this morning because I had an exam.
  • They wouldn’t let me extend my visa.

With a Little Help from My Friends: Written by John Lennon and Paul McCartney

This song is unusual for the The Beatles in that is was actually written for the drummer Ringo Starr to sing. It features on the album Sgt. Pepper’s Lonely Hearts Club Band and deals with themes of love, friendship and loneliness. The lyrics use some interesting constructions  to ask real questions about what the singer would do or does do.

Grammar points: Second conditional, zero conditional.

Focus lyrics:

What would you think if I sang out of tune?

Would you stand up and walk out on me?

This second conditional form is asking a question about an unreal present. It uses an if clause (if I sang out of tune) and a result clause (what would you think?). We can construct this form by using the structure below:

(If) + (subject) + (past simple) + (would) + (subject) + (base verb)

If I sang out of tune, would you stand up and walk out on me?

Focus lyrics:

What do I do when my love is away?

In the second verse, the second conditional changes to the zero conditional. Unlike the second conditional above, is asking about how the singer responds in real life when faced with this situation. We can say that the zero conditional is used to talk about things which are usually or generally true. Take a look at the structure below:

(when) + (subject) + (present simple) + (what) + (do) + (subject) + (base verb)

When my love is away, what do I do?

All My Loving: Written by Paul McCartney

This early Beatles’ song (released in 1963) is typical of the upbeat pop music which made them stars around the world. Like so many pop songs, it focuses on romance and uses the future simple tense throughout to express future intentions.

Grammar points: Future simple with contractions and the imperative form of the verb. 

Focus lyrics:

 Close your eyes and I’ll kiss you

Tomorrow I’ll miss you

Remember I’ll always be true

         The first three lines of the first verse use two interesting grammar points: the future simple tense (I’ll kiss you/I’ll miss you) and the imperative form of the verb (Close your eyes/Remember). The future simple forms both use contractions (I will > I’ll) to reflect spoken, informal English and to fit better with the rhythm of the melody. The imperative forms are used to give direct orders or instructions in English. They are made simply by using the verb in its base form.


  • Do the dishes.
  • Watch your head.
  • Remember to post that letter.

 Focus lyrics:

 I’ll pretend that I’m kissing

The lips I am missing

 Here we see the future simple again (I’ll pretend) used with the present continuous tenses (I’m kissing/I am missing) to indicate an action happening at the moment of speaking. So, is the singer kissing and missing at the time of the song? No. By using this form with the future simple, he is talking about a future intention to do this action.  Example: I’ll pretend that I’m doing my homework but, in reality, I’ll be playing video games.



         "The Beatles" had changed the state of rock and pop music. They had introduced sounds and rhythms, and they had influenced types of musical instruments. They had recorded thousands of songs and they had sold lots of records. They had made many films and many awards for their music. Today, Beatles songs are still very popular all over the world.  Many people all over the world love Beatles. So I can say with sure that they are still existing because their music will never die! A lot of us choose the Beatles, because we choose light, life, happiness and hope.





  1. Багиров А. (Багир-Заде А.Н.) «Битлз» - любовь моя. М.: Парус, 1993.
  2. «Осколки неба,или подлинная история The Beatles», Юлий Буркин, Константин Фадеев, Издательство: «Амфора» 2014 г.
  3. Wikipedia
  4. Nicholas Bate: Being the Best. Beatles Anthology/ www.nocholasbate.typepad.com
  5. The Beatles. Yeah! Yeah! Издательство т/о «Диалог».
  6. http://www.peoples.ru/art/music/rock/beatles/history.html

Опубликовано в Проекты
По версии составителей толкового словаря, это прилагательное single-use, что в переводе означает "одноразовый".

Британский словарь Collins Dictionary традиционно обнародовал список слов, которые, на взгляд его специалистов, стали символами уже уходящего года. В прошлом году главным из них стал термин "замешанный" (complicit), ещё годом ранее был Brexit (выход Великобритании из ЕС).

Теперь же, по версии составителей толкового словаря, словом стало прилагательное single-use, что в переводе означает "одноразовый". Его употребление за последние пять лет увеличилось в четыре раза.

Collins Dictionary его приводит в контексте экологии. Это слово описывает предметы, которые становятся причиной загрязнения окружающей среды. Прежде всего это пластиковая продукция.

Среди других слов, заметных в этом году в Британии, названы gammon ("окорок", используется для описания мужчин средних лет с красными лицами и реакционными взглядами) и MeToo ("Я тоже" — так назвали движение против сексуальных домогательств).

Опубликовано в Новости